The Usages of the Measure Words – 次(cì) / 遍(biàn) / 趟(tàng) / 场(chǎng)

次 (cì)
(Verbal Measure Word)
To modify the actions which can be repeated
e.g.
We met once.
我们见过一次。
Wǒmen jiàn guò yí cì.

I’ve taken hsk4 four times, but I failed four times.
HSK4我考了四次也没过。
HSK4 wǒ kǎo le sì cì yě méi guò.

遍 (biàn)
(Verbal Measure Word)
To emphasize the whole process of an action from the beginning to the end.
e.g.
Please say it again.
请再说一遍。
Qǐng zài shuō yí biàn.

I have read this book twice.
这本书我看了两遍。
Zhè běn shū wǒ kàn le liǎng biàn.

趟 (tàng)
(Verbal Measure Word)
To indicate the whole process of going to and returning from a place.
e.g.
These things can’t be moved at one time.
这些东西一趟搬不完。
Zhè xiē dōngxi yí tàng bān bù wán.

I went there twice and he was not there.
我去了两趟,他都不在。
Wǒ qù le liǎng tàng, tā dōu bú zài.

场 (chǎng)
(Nominal Measure Word)
refers to the whole process of doing something, and is often used to modify variety shows or sports games
e.g.
I want to play a game with you.
我想和你打一场比赛。
Wǒ xiǎng hé nǐ dǎ yì chǎng bǐsài.

How many Chinese tests are there in a year?
一年有几场汉语考试?
Yìnián yǒu jǐ chǎng hànyǔ kǎoshì?

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时量补语Time-measure complement

A time-measure complement is added to explain the period of time that an action or behavior experiences or lasts, time-measure complement is usually made up of words or phrases indicating time periods, such as “one year, two months, three weeks, four days, five hours, ten minutes”, etc.,


Its usual structure is: subject+verb+了+ time-measure complement(+ object)

For example:
我当了五年记者。I worked as a reporter for five years.
Wǒ dāngle wǔ nián jìzhě.

我当了六年医生。I have been a doctor for six years.
Wǒ dāngle liù nián yīshēng.

他学了三个月中文。He studied Chinese for three months.
Tā xuéle sān gè yuè zhōngwén.

她看了一小时书。She read for an hour.
Tā kànle yī xiǎoshí shū.

他坐了四十分钟车。He took a 40-minute car ride.
Tā zuòle sìshí fēnzhōng chē.

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Two main usages of 又

Today we will discuss two main usages of 又

又 again

Yòu

又 is often used for events that have happened and it is often used together with 了, 再 is used for events that have not happened yet.

David has been to that restaurant before. Today he went to that restaurant again. He wants to go to that restaurant again next weekend.

大卫以前去过那家饭店,今天他又去了那家饭店,下个周末他想再去那家饭店。

Dà wèi yǐqián qùguò nà jiā fàndiàn, jīntiān tā yòu qùle nà jiā fàndiàn, xià gè zhōumò tā xiǎng zài qù nà jiā fàndiàn.

I called Jesse in the morning and I called him again in the afternoon.

上午我给杰西打了一个电话,下午我又给他打了一个电话。

Shàngwǔ wǒ gěi jié xī dǎle yīgè diànhuà, xiàwǔ wǒ yòu gěi tā dǎle yīgè diànhuà.

Yesterday I went to this restaurant, and today I went to this restaurant again.                  

昨天我去了这个饭馆,今天我又去了这个饭馆。

Zuótiān wǒ qùle zhège fànguǎn, jīntiān wǒ yòu qùle zhège fànguǎn.

I didn’t find his home last time, and I didn’t find his home again this time.

我上次没找到他家,这次又没找到他家。

Wǒ shàng cì méi zhǎodào tā jiā, zhè cì yòu méi zhǎodào tā jiā.

When we put two 又 together, it means “…both…and…”

又……又…… …both…and…

She is both beautiful and clever.

她又漂亮又聪明。

Tā yòu piàoliang yòu cōngmíng.

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Some usages of 就

就 is used in both contemplated and completed actions, expressing a plan, request, command, statement or condition.

a. Indicates the immediacy of the next action.

    S1  V1 了 O1, (S2)  就 V2 O2   (了/吧)

    我  下  了  课,          就 回  家    了。

    As soon as I got out of class, I went home.

    Wǒ xià le kè, jiù huí jiā le.

b. Indicates an action takes or took place sooner or earlier than expected.

    S  Time-expression    就   VO ( 了)

    我    今天五点钟         就   起来了。

    Today I got up at five o’clock. 

    Wǒ jīntiān wǔ diǎn zhōng jiù qǐláile.

c. Means ” (if) …… then”

   (要是) S1 V1 O1  , (S2)  就 V2O2

    要是  我  有 时间,  我    就  参加。

    (If) I have time,then I will attend.

    Yàoshi wǒ yǒu shíjiān, wǒ jiù cānjiā.

d. Means “… will …    =>    … 就(会, 要) + verb …

    rúguǒ míngtiān xiàyǔ, yīnyuèhuì jiù huì qǔxiāo.

    如果明天下雨, 音乐会就会取消.

    If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be cancelled.

e.The structure “就+verb”indicates a conclusion or a resolution made on the basis of what’s been  mentioned previously. For example:

If you don’t want to go, just rest at home.

⑴ 你不想去,就在家休息吧。

Nǐ bùxiǎng qù, jiù zàijiā xiūxí ba.

The coffee here is good. Let’s drink coffee.

⑵ 这儿的咖啡不错,就喝咖啡吧。

Zhè’er de kāfēi bùcuò, jiù hē kāfēi ba.

Today is Dad’s birthday. Let’s go out for dinner.

⑶ 今天是爸爸的生日,我们就去外面吃饭吧。

Jīntiān shì bàba de shēngrì, wǒmen jiù qù wàimiàn chīfàn ba.

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The difference between 就 and 才

Time+就+verb

Time+才+verb

Both 才 and 就 can be used as an adverbial modifier before a verb

就 indicates that in the speaker’s opinion, the action happened early, or went on fast or smoothly. For example:
Why are you going to bed so early?
你怎么这么早就 要睡觉了? (earlier than expected time)
Nǐ zěnme zhème zǎo jiù yào shuìjiàole?

才 indicates that in the speaker’s opinion, the action happened late, or went on slowly or unsatisfactorily. For example:
Class begins at seven o’clock, but he doesn’t get up until eight o’clock.
七点上课,他八点才 起床。(later than expected time)
Qī diǎn shàngkè, tā bā diǎn cái qǐchuáng.

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The usage of 多+adjective?in Chinese

The adverb 多 is placed before a monosyllabic adjective to enquire about degree.

多高?How high? How tall?

Duō gāo?

多远?How far?

Duō yuǎn?

多长?How long?

Duō cháng?

多重?How heavy?

Duō zhòng?

多大?How old?

Duōdà?

When we ask “你多大?”, it is to ask the age of other person. 

Sometimes, 多大? can also be used to ask the size, for example, 

How big is this clothes?

这件衣服多大?

Zhè jiàn yīfú duōdà?

Therefore, if we want to know the exact meaning of 多大, we shall decide based on the context.

你多高?How tall are you?

Nǐ duō gāo?

我一米七五。I am one point seventy-five meters.

Wǒ yī mǐ qīwǔ.

裤子多长?How long are the trousers?

Kùzi duō cháng?

裤子长一米一。The trousers are one point one meters long.

Kùzi cháng yī mǐ yī.

公司离这儿多远?How far is the company from here?

Gōngsī lí zhè’er duō yuǎn?

公司离这儿五百米。The company is five hundred meters away from here.

Gōngsī lí zhè’er wǔbǎi mǐ.

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Two ways of describing someone or something in a certain place

Usually, we use structure “someone/something +在+ location” to describe someone or something is in a certain place. Besides this structure, we can also another one to describe it. The new structure is “location + verb着+ someone/something”

Let’s compare these two structures:

Something +在+ Location  →  Location      + verb着+ something

     沙发        在   客厅的中间→   客厅的中间  放着       沙发。

                                                    Fang Fang holds the newspaper in her hands.

                                                    方方的手上拿着报纸。

                                                    Fāng fāng de shǒu shàng názhe bàozhǐ.

                                                    Martin and Yang Jie are sitting on the sofa.

                                                    沙发上坐着马丁和杨杰。

                                                    Shāfā shàng zuòzhe mǎdīng hé yáng jié.

                                                     The car is parked outside the window.

                                                     窗户的外面停着车。

                                                     Chuānghù de wài mian tíngzhe chē.

                                                    There is an envelope on the table.

                                                    桌子上放着一个信封。

                                                    Zhuōzi shàng fàngzhe yīgè xìnfēng.

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complements of result in Chinese

Some verbs or adjectives can be used after a verb to add remarks about the result of an action. They are called complements of result. In its positive form, we need use 了. In its negative form, 没 (有)is added before the verb to form the negative form of a complement of result, in which case “了” cannot appear at the end of the sentence. For example:

He learned to swim.

他学会了游泳。                        (positive form)

Tā xuéhuìle yóuyǒng.

He did not learn to swim.

他没学会游泳。                        (negative form)

Tā méi xuéhuì yóuyǒng.

She saw her friend.

她看见了她的朋友。                 (positive form)

Tā kànjiànle tā de péngyǒu.

She did not see her friend.

她没看见她的朋友。                  (negative form)

Tā méi kànjiàn tā de péngyǒu.

She found the address.    

她找到了那个地址。             (positive form)

Tā zhǎodàole nàgè dìzhǐ.

She did not find the address.

她没找到那个地址。               (negative form)

Tā méi zhǎodào nàgè dìzhǐ.

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The differences between 能 and 会

能 can indicate something that you are able to do naturally, for example:

I can eat 3 bowls of cooked rice.
我能吃三碗米饭。
Wǒ néng chī sān wǎn mǐfàn.

能 can also be used to ask for or give permission, for example:

Can I smoke here?
我能在这里抽烟吗?
Wǒ néng zài zhèlǐ chōuyān ma?

No, you can’t.
不能。
Bùnéng

会 means that you have acquired certain abilities or skills, and that you have acquired them through learning, for example:

I can speak Mandarin.
我会说普通话。
Wǒ huì shuō pǔtōnghuà.

I can cook.
我会做饭。
Wǒ huì zuò fàn.

Can you drive?
你会开车吗?
Nǐ huì kāichē ma?

“会” also indicates what might happen in the future. For example:

It won’t rain tomorrow.
明天不会下雨。
Míngtiān bú huì xià yǔ.

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Complements of possibility introduced by “V得/不”

可能补语V得/不 Complements of possibility introduced by “V得/不”

In Chinese, “V得+Complements” or “V不+Complements” can be used to indicate whether or not a result can be obtained or a goal be reached.”V得+Complements” is the positive form, and “V不+Complements” is the negative form. The complements used in this structure are usually complements of result or direction, and certain adjectives or verbs. For example:
找得到 can find
Zhǎo de dào
找不到 can’t find
Zhǎo bu dào
拿得走can take
Ná de zǒu
拿不走can’t take
Ná bu zǒu
搬得走can move
Bān de zǒu
搬不走can’t move
Bān bu zǒu

You sit behind (which means far from the stage), is it possible that you can’t see (the performance)?
你坐在 后边,会不会看不见?
Nǐ zuò zài hòubian, huì bú huì kàn bùjiàn?

I can see.
我看得见。
Wǒ kàn de jiàn.

This suitcase is a little small, is it possible that this suitcase can’t load all these things?
这个箱子有点儿小,会不会放不下?
Zhège xiāngzi yǒudiǎn er xiǎo, huì bú huì fàng búxià?

It can load all these things.
放得下。
Fàng de xià.

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