complements of result in Chinese

Some verbs or adjectives can be used after a verb to add remarks about the result of an action. They are called complements of result. In its positive form, we need use 了. In its negative form, 没 (有)is added before the verb to form the negative form of a complement of result, in which case “了” cannot appear at the end of the sentence. For example:

He learned to swim.

他学会了游泳。                        (positive form)

Tā xuéhuìle yóuyǒng.

He did not learn to swim.

他没学会游泳。                        (negative form)

Tā méi xuéhuì yóuyǒng.

She saw her friend.

她看见了她的朋友。                 (positive form)

Tā kànjiànle tā de péngyǒu.

She did not see her friend.

她没看见她的朋友。                  (negative form)

Tā méi kànjiàn tā de péngyǒu.

She found the address.    

她找到了那个地址。             (positive form)

Tā zhǎodàole nàgè dìzhǐ.

She did not find the address.

她没找到那个地址。               (negative form)

Tā méi zhǎodào nàgè dìzhǐ.

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